The Silicon Pixel Detector (SPD)
The Silicon Pixel Detector (SPD) is part of the Inner Tracking System (ITS) of the ALICE experiment. ALICE is designed to study the properties of strongly interacting matter under the extreme conditions provided by ultrarelativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) under construction at CERN. The purpose of the SPD is to provide ALICE with adequate secondary vertexing capability for charm and beauty detection in such a high multiplicity environment (charged particle multiplicities of up to 8000 per unit of rapidity have been predicted for head-on Pb-Pb collisions at the LHC). The pseudorapidity coverage of the inner layer is |η| < 1.95. The two SPD layers allow to achieve a track impact parameter resolution in the plane perpendicular to the beam axis better than 50 μm for pt > 1.3 GeV/c.
The SPD barrel consists of staves distributed in two layers around the beam pipe at a radius of 3.9 cm and 7.6 cm, covering a length of 24.5 cm in z direction. Each stave is formed by 4 ladders, each ladder consisting of a silicon pixel sensor matrix of 256 × 160 cells, bump-bonded to 5 ALICE readout chips. The staves are mounted on 10 lightweight carbon-fibre sectors. Thin vessels integrated in the support structure allow the removal by evaporative cooling of the heat generated in the SPD electronics. In total, the ALICE SPD will consist of:
• staves: 60
• ladders: 240
• readout chips: 1200
• pixel cells: ≈ 9.8 × 106
ALICE1LHCb Readout Chip
The ALICE1LHCb chip is a mixed-functions ASIC designed in a commercial 0.25 μm CMOS process. Radiation hardness is obtained by using enclosed gate NMOS transistors and guard rings. The chip has an active area of 12.8 × 13.6 mm2 and comprises 8192 pixel cells, arranged in 256 rows and 32 columns, each cell measuring 50 μm (rφ) × 425 μm (z). The nominal frequency of the clock in the experiment is 10 MHz.
The ALICE1LHCb chip (credits: Antonio Saba)
The silicon sensors are high resistivity p+n type diodes and are 200 μm thick. The readout chip wafers will be thinned (after bump deposition) to ~150 μm thickness. Bump-bonding is being prototyped with Pb-Sn solder bumps (VTT, Finland) and Indium bumps (AMS, Italy). Radioactive source measurements with a 55Fe source conducted in prototype assemblies of 300 μm thick sensors bump-bonded to chips of native thickness (750 μm) have confirmed the functionality of the devices.
Electron microscope photograph of a solder bump on the readout chip. The bump diameter is ~25 microns (courtesy of VTT).
Test measurements on the ALICE1LHCb chip indicate a minimum operating threshold of about 1000 electrons rms, a mean noise around 110 electrons rms and a threshold spread of about 200 electrons rms before tuning.
Schematic of the test system.
The pixel wafers containing the ASIC are 200 mm in diameter and each contains 86 chips. Wafer-scale tests have been carried out at CERN on a probe station. The automated test protocol includes current consumption measurements, verification of JTAG and DAC functionality, threshold scan of the complete pixel matrix and determination of minimum threshold. The known-good-die (KGD) yield is higher than 50% (preliminary).
Wafer (200 mm diameter) and KDG map (rejected die in red).
Data from the SPD
The timing, control and readout of each half-stave are done by a PILOT ASIC, mounted on a MCM (Multi Chip Module) together with opto-electronic transceivers and an analog chip providing reference voltages to pixel chips. Clock, trigger and configuration data are sent from the control room via two optical fibers to the PILOT ASIC. Upon reception of a L1 trigger (latency 6 μs, rate 1 kHz) data are stored in the multi-event buffers in the pixel chips. Read-out from there is initiated after the reception of a L2 accept signal (latency 100 μs, rate 40 to 800 Hz). Data move via the pilot ASIC and the 800 Mb/s G-Link compatible serializer GOL (General Optical Link) on a fiber to the control room.